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1 The issues of poor communication, ineffective disaster management approaches, and lack of support to the public health sector have also been widely discussed. For instance, it is identifiable that lack of sufficient training of the public health professionals is to blame for some of the adversaries that occur during a disaster. While these agencies need to be empowered, it is also vital that they are better funded in readiness for disaster. During Hurricane Katrina, for instance, it is reported that poor response despite the early warnings and lack of proper coordination resulted in the loss of more than 1,300 lives as well as many more disabilities and psychological trauma victims (Rhodes, Chan, Paxson, Rouse … Fussell, 2010). As a result, public health agencies need to be well prepared and equipped in readiness for disasters at all times. While it possible for natural disasters to give warnings that allow sufficient response tie, some of these only allow limited time relative to the number of people in the line of impact. As a result, seeking funding and mobilizing resources after the disaster has struck is often a poor strategy for every level of government.

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2.Emergency departments of hospitals and public health institutions are considered the most critical unit for dealing with the health challenges that result from natural and human-made incidents that occur in any part of the United States. It is a component of the health care system that the population regardless of their socioeconomic or other demographic indicators believes would provide the services that they require during any incidents without consideration for their practicality of meeting these needs. Although the professionals that work in these units are willing and committed to improving the health of the community through the provision of these services, several factors and issues limit their capacity to do so thereby affording scholars in the public health and emergency management to investigate approaches that can be used to resolve them. Therefore, the examination of the scholarly articles revealed common themes that should provide insights on the strategies that the professional in the emergency units of hospitals can use to meet the expectation of Americans during disaster response and recovery.

One of the common themes that were present in the several journal articles is the increasing demand for the services provided by the emergency departments of the hospitals and public health institutions. According to Warden et al. (2006), the complexity of the needs of the population has transcended the traditional roles that were performed by this sector of the healthcare system to include disaster preparedness, health surveillance, and acquisition of new skills and competencies. An additional theme that was observed from these articles and supported the increasing dependence of the people on the emergency unit is the training of emergency professionals on the current trends of patient needs and alignment of their roles and responsibilities with realities of the society (Hirshon & Morris, 2006). It is an imperative that cannot be ignored because of the impact of the understanding on the development of the right and effective interventions and evidence-based protocols that would allow them to meet the expectations of the consumers including the insured and uninsured.

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