answer and 2 responses 3

DB: (Individual work-product)

Option 1: Using an example (find in the literature or life) evaluate where design thinking or system theories were applied and the outcomes of that form of thinking.

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Option 2: Identify a leader in an event. What stands out about their strengths and weaknesses? What were the consequences of their actions?

Option 3: What value is project management? Why is this a skill an emergency manager /disaster manager needs to succeed?


response 2 posts

1st post,

Q1 _ In disasters, organizational management and communication are critical to dealing with the situation and returning to the typical atmosphere in the organization. Design thinking is used in cases where the disaster involves problems with the designing process and the strategies put in place to manage such problems (Hicks & Glick, 2015). The professional design in an organization is essential as it guides the leaders on what to do in case of disasters. As such, design thinking is essential as an organizational management aspect which helps in the identification of the critical problems. During a disaster, the problem may not be identified at once, and this means that the design thinking method can ensure fast identification of the key problem associated (Hicks & Glick, 2015). Disasters also involve individuals affected at different levels, and the method’s first step is empathy which ensures empathizing with the affected individuals. Therefore, the process of design thinking is not only helpful in identifying the problem associated with the disaster but also resolving the problem. Similarly, the system theory is applied to assess the distinct parts that form the organization for the identification and resolving of a disaster (Medford-Davis & Kapur, 2014). The systems theory helps in the characterization of the organization as either closed or open based on whether the environment has impacts on the system (Medford-Davis & Kapur, 2014). This enhances the process of resolving a disaster since it can be associated with external or internal factors. Therefore, both design thinking and system theories are critical to organizational management and communication in disasters.

David Brady, the American Red Cross CEO in the Texas Gulf Coast, was an outspoken leader during Hurricane Harvey, a natural disaster that hit the state of Texas. Brady portrayed various strengths and weaknesses in his leadership which has widely been thought to be transformational (McCambridge, 2017). First, Brady had considerable organizational skills in managing the Red Cross and its response to the hurricane. Secondly, Cook understood how to meet the needs of the people affected by the disaster through effective evacuation and provision of supplies (McCambridge, 2017). Brady was also confident in his position as CEO, and this indicated that he played his roles adequately in managing the disaster as portrayed in his press releases. Finally, Brady also portrayed empowering qualities and participated in helping the victims and seeking help from other states for the people affected to experience some comfort. However, some of the weaknesses include poor visionary skills for the victims, alleged mismanagement of Red Cross disaster funds, and stepping down due to the criticism rather than facing the critics (McCambridge, 2017). The consequences of Brady’s actions led to a lot of criticism from the public regarding the management of the disaster funds which were meant to assist the hurricane victims and ensure rescue for those trapped in hazardous areas (McCambridge, 2017).


Project management is a discipline that focuses on the processes, frameworks, techniques, and guidelines to manage work and people (Thomas & Mullaly, 2017). Effective project management strategies enhance the success of a project since managing people and work is challenging and complex due to human differences. Project management is valuable in any organization as it promotes the success of a project by ensuring that the odds are high for the success of a project. As such, project managers are critical to any organization seeking to focus on a project as they help increase the odds for this success. An emergency or disaster manager need to succeed in project management since it provides skills and knowledge on how to deal with disasters and emergency cases. As such, project management skills increase the odds for the success in the management of disasters and emergency issues (Thomas & Mullaly, 2017). In disasters, disaster and emergency managers ensure effective management of people and work involved in the rescue and restoration of normal operations. Therefore, project management is a crucial skill for emergency managers.


Hicks, J., & Glick, R. (2015). A meta‐analysis of hospital evacuations: Overcoming barriers to effective planning. Journal of Healthcare Risk Management, 34(3), 26-36.
McCambridge, R. (2017). Amid Harvey Fallout, Texas Gulf Coast Region Red Cross CEO Resigns After Only Six Months. Retrieved from…
Medford-Davis, L. N., & Kapur, G. B. (2014). Preparing for effective communications during disasters: lessons from a World Health Organization quality improvement project. International journal of emergency medicine, 7(1), 15.
Thomas, J., & Mullaly, M. (2017). Understanding the value of project management: First steps on an international investigation in search of value. Project Management Journal, 38(3), 74-89.…


2nd post,

Option 2: Identify a leader in an event. What stands out about their strengths and weaknesses? What were the consequences of their actions?
A leader is an individual who influences other people and motivates them towards achieving their goals or the organization’s goals. Most individuals often confuse a leader and a manager, but it is essential to understand that the two are entirely different individuals. Their differences are not only in the roles they play but also in their personality traits (Clarke, 2009). Now that we know who a leader is, it is crucial to understand how one can identify a leader in an event. One can recognize a leader by several qualities in different situations.
Firstly, performance; this is a significant quality in a leader. A leader is typically a role model. A true leader always has the highest level of performance and output. They are also very active. Secondly, a leader has to be intelligent. Leaders are always intelligent and carry a vision. They have the long-term goals in mind and always see ahead. A leader does not wait for another person to make decisions for them but makes he/her own choices and starts working on them without being pushed. Thirdly, you can recognize a leader in an event by looking at the person’s attitude of service and their level of sacrifice. Leaders have attitudes of service in them and are always willing to serve other people regardless of whether they will get something in return or not. They are selfless people and always put other people’s needs and welfare before their own. Lastly, Leaders are also well connected with the people around them and also have a good judgment even in the most disastrous moments (Kerzner, & Kerzner, 2017).
Leaders, just like any other person, also possess some strengths as well as weaknesses. Some of their shortcomings include failing to lay out clear expectations, stagnancy, excessive connectivity and lack of trust in other people, especially those under them (Yukl, 2013). Leaders, especially new ones always have difficulty trusting people maybe because they feel that they cannot complete a task with the same efficiency as they would want. When it comes to stagnancy, most leaders face the danger of being stagnant in their way of doing things that might not be working. On the contrary, their strengths include excellent communication skills, excellent negotiation skills, ability to work effectively in diverse conditions, being mindful of themselves and those around them, and the ability to make difficult or courageous decisions.
Good leaders always leave positive consequences wherever they dedicate their efforts. Organizations with good leaders move forward and end up achieving their goals and leave everyone satisfied with their accomplishments. There can never be chaos under challenging times if there is good leadership. This is because a good leader stays calm and composed even in the face of disaster or difficulty. Thus he/she can neutralize the tension thus managing the situation. Bad leadership, on the other hand, leads to negative consequences like unachieved goals, uncontrollable chaos in cases of disaster, inefficiency and ineffectiveness.

Clarke, P. A. (2009). Leadership, beyond project management. Industrial
Kerzner, H., & Kerzner, H. R. (2017). Project management: a systems approach to planning,
scheduling, and controlling. John Wiley & Sons.
Yukl, G. A. (2013). Leadership in organizations. Pearson Education India.

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