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Genetic technology is becoming commonplace in our lives as new advances appear on a frequent basis. One genetic technology that is garnering increased attention is gene therapy and its potential to cure debilitating diseases like cystic fibrosis, hemophilia and even some cancers. But there is also concern that this technology could be misused.

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  • What do you think are some of the pros and cons of gene therapy?
  • How do somatic and germ line gene therapy differ?
  • Might there be more ethical concern over one form of gene therapy than the other?
  • See Chapter 9.4 in your textbook for inspiration.


Consider the following hypothetical DNA fingerprint. Which suspect or suspects were most likely at the scene of the crime?


Unit III Homework

Blood Typing


Blood typing is critical in medicine. If a person receives the wrong type of blood, they can die. The purpose of this homework is to allow you to determine what types of blood can be given to specific patients.

ABO and Rh Blood Typing

Blood typing is discussed on pages 176–178 of the textbook, but let’s skip the genetics of it for now.

First, let’s just focus on the ABO grouping and then we’ll look at the Rh grouping. There are two possible antigens on your red blood cells (RBC), A or B. You can have one of each, both, or none. Therefore, possible ABO blood types are A, B, AB, or O. Now, if you have an antigen on your RBCs, then you will not make antibodies against the antigen. However, you will have antibodies against the antigen you do not have. It is as if you are allergic to the opposite blood type. For example, a person with A antigens (blood type A) will make antibodies to antigen B, since that person does not have B antigens. Therefore, people with blood type A cannot receive type B blood because they have antibodies against B. A person with B blood will make antibodies against A. What do AB people do? The have both antigens, so they do not make antibodies at all. With no antibodies, can they receive type A blood? Sure, and they can receive blood from type B and type O people as well. With no antibodies, they are not “allergic” to any blood type. Let’s look at people with type O blood. They have no antigens, and they make antibodies against A and B. They are allergic to all blood with any antigens; therefore, they can accept blood only from other O people.

Got it? To recap, your blood type depends on the antigens on your red blood cells. You cannot make antibodies against your own cells, but you do make antibodies against the missing antigens. So, A makes antibodies against B, B makes antibodies against A, AB makes no antibodies, and O makes antibodies against both A and B. Remember now that O blood has no antigens, so a person with A or B blood can accept blood from type O people. Type A makes antibodies against B, but O blood does not have B antigens. Likewise, type B can accept from type O; however, type O makes antibodies against A and B and, therefore, can accept blood only if it has not antigens: type O blood.

Rh is the same thing but easier. You are either positive or negative. Either you have the Rh antigen or you do not. Either you make antibodies or you do not. A person who is Rh positive does not make antibodies. A person who is Rh negative makes antibodies against Rh. Therefore, an Rh-positive person can accept blood from either Rh-positive or Rh-negative people (they have no antibodies), but Rh-negative people can accept only from other Rh-negative people because they make antibodies against Rh.

Now combine the two concepts. At one extreme, AB positive people make no antibodies (because they have the antigens and cannot be allergic to their own blood) and can accept blood from anyone. At the other extreme, O-negative people make antibodies against A, B, and Rh meaning they can accept blood from no one, except other O-negative people. In between, a person with A-positive blood makes antibodies against B but not Rh. Therefore, they can accept from A or O and Rh-positive or negative. Try to figure out B people.

Be aware that the antibodies are not present in donated blood. When giving your answer to the blood type section, do not forget to include the Rh factor.


  • Determine blood types that blood groups can receive.


  • Type your answers directly on the data sheet.
  • Select Save As, and use your last name and student ID as a file name.
  • Upload the data sheet as a .doc, .docx, or .rtf file when finished.

Questions: Questions 1-10 are short answer questions and should be answered in complete sentences. Total: 100 points

1. The first patient has type O+ blood. Which antigens does this person have on his/her red blood cells? (including Rh)(10 points)

2. List ALL blood types that can be given to a patient with the type of blood that the patient in question one has.

(10 points)

3. The second patient has A+ blood type. Which antigens does this person have on her red blood cells? (Including Rh)(10 points)

4. List ALL blood types that can be given to a patient with the type of blood that the second patient has.

(10 points)

5. The third patient has AB- blood type. Which antigens does this person have on her red blood cells? (including Rh)(10 points)

6. List ALL blood types that can be given to a patient with the type of blood that the third patient has.

(10 points)

7. Which blood type is the universal blood recipient? (Can receive all blood types)(10 point)

8. Which blood type is the universal donor? (10 points)

9. Can a person with type O blood receive any other blood type besides type O? Why?(10 points)

10. Can a patient with Rh- blood receive Rh+ blood without rejecting it? Explain why. (10 points)

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