Read pages 14-22 of the textbook, Asking the Right Questions (EMCC edition).
Answer the following questions:
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1. Review question (Chapter 1): In your own words, define critical thinking. Why is such thinking important for citizens of the twenty-first century?
2. Explain why critical thinking and questioning is often uncomfortable for a person and for the people that person is interacting with.
3. Explain how System 1 thinking and stereotypes are related.
4. What is the halo effect? How can it interfere with critical thinking? Give one personal experience in which the halo effect has influenced your thinking or the thinking of someone you know.
5. What is belief perseverance? Explain how our own personal belief system can interfere with understanding the beliefs of others and in sometimes making poor choices.
6. What is availability heuristic? How is it related to the heuristic effect? Why are both considered to be obstacles that block true critical thinking?
7. What do the authors mean when they state that sometimes people “answer the wrong question?” Why do so many people do this so often? Give an example from your personal life when a person has done this in response to a question that you have asked.
8. What is egocentrism? Why do the authors state that most of the “speed bumps” on the road to critical thinking are connected to this major principle?
9. Why do the authors state that “wishful thinking” is perhaps the biggest “speed bump” on the road to critical thinking? Describe a situation in which you or someone you know relied on wishful thinking rather than on critical thinking.
10. We know that there are many obstacles that keep us from truly thinking critically. This chapter has identified many of them. Despite the fact that we know about these things, many people continue to rely on weak thinking on a daily basis. Write a paragraph explaining why this is so and why there is not more strong thinking among us all.